Throughout this book, the terms “Aftercare” and “post-investment” are used extensively. In the FDI literature, and also in the real world, there are many different uses of these two terms. This chapter makes clear the differences between Aftercare and post-investment, as used in this book, and presents a logical way to make the difference understandable. This chapter also discusses the many benefits of Aftercare, its spheres of influence on the local economy, the different target groups it serves and how these interact to generate better economic and social outcomes. Post-investment behaviour – the analysis of what happens after an investor lands in a new country – provides a framework with which to first understand and then to influence a foreign investor’s post-investment decision. At the end of the chapter, Aftercare objectives and the case for Aftercare are analysed in detail in order to explain why allocating resources to post-investment activities is good for a host economy.