This chapter revisits the deindustrialization debate in Africa by examining why, and the extent to which, deindustrialization has happened across the continent. If deindustrialization is indeed happening, we argue that this raises questions about the sustainability of Africa’s growth and development, which had already begun to slow down before COVID-19. Drawing from extant literature and recent data, this chapter delves into how concerns about deindustrialization may have been exaggerated. On the other hand, after accounting for different country-specific and regional experiences, including improving industrial performance in recent years, we argue that Africa has not seen the kind of industrial expansion experienced elsewhere, and which will be necessary for sustained growth and development. After considering the implications of deindustrialization for inequality, this chapter discusses various avenues for industrialization in Africa, including the recent launch of the African Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA).