Perspectives on science teaching and science teacher education have consistently evolved as the needs and expectations for science education have changed over time. In order for teachers to prepare learners for scientific and technological changes of the 21st century and the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR), in-service teachers will need ongoing development. Opportunities exist in science education for teachers to harness the innovations associated with the 4IR to improve learners’ experiences. For teachers to effectively do this, they will need to review, refine, and possibly reconstruct their practice. At the same time, local contextual elements should be considered, and these may include the cultural background of learners, the language competency of learners, and classroom settings. The purpose of this chapter is to guide science teacher educators in developing and enacting professional development for both pre- and in-service teachers. We frame issues in science teacher education in terms of “wicked problems”, and then explore models and frameworks for possible responses to these wicked problems. We also make recommendations for future research in science teacher education.