Catastrophes – be they earthquakes, volcanoes, droughts, floods, or locusts, individually or in combination – devastate vulnerable areas and people. These phenomena have threatened people enduringly – back into Deep History. What these threats have in common is their unpredictability, both in terms of their potential magnitude and their recurrence. They can emerge as trans-regional phenomena, but at times can be very localised. This chapter demonstrates, with a range of examples, that studying these five phenomena individually or in combination from the perspective of environmental history is a worthwhile endeavour. This is because the study of hazards and disasters offers insights into individuals, a community, or society at large, and sheds light on their reactions to extreme situations that often magnify existing strengths and weaknesses. Hazards pose risks to societies. When they occur, they reveal a society’s preparedness, or unpreparedness, for such events. Hazards and disasters can provide excellent examples that the environment can have significant impacts on both humans and non-humans.