This chapter focuses on the social second language learning (SL2) framework, which considers second language (L2) learning through social interaction and integration of information in the real world or in simulated social contexts. Specifically, the chapter discusses how SL2 provides a new framework for thinking about L2 versus first language (L1) differences and their corresponding neural correlates. The chapter compares the manner and context in which adults typically learn L2 with the way children naturally acquire L1, pointing to the significant theoretical implications of SL2. Then, properties are identified that make SL2 distinctive and advantageous to L2 learners, with a discussion of how this framework can be applied to the study of theoretical issues underlying L2 learning. Additionally, the chapter discusses the neural representations with respect to the increasing recognition of the right-hemisphere participation in SL2. Finally, the practical applications in technology-enhanced language learning are highlighted.