This chapter focuses on the dialectics between nation and migration, as well as nationalism and transnationalism. It compares the massive labor migration starting in the nineteenth century from India with that from China. Indian migrations are called ‘Indian’ and Chinese migrations are called ‘Chinese’ using anachronistic and imprecise categorizations. India and China were not nation states between 1850 and 1950. They were Sindhis, Punjabis, Patels, Bhojpuris, Bengalis, Tamils, or various kinds of Fujianese, Cantonese, Wenzhounese. Their languages, religions, and cultural traditions were very diverse, but through the migration process homeland nationalism played a significant role in their lives. This was enhanced by encountering widespread discrimination in the host societies. The chapter discusses the nature of the migrant networks and focuses on the role of religion in these networks.