The world is dealing with increased challenges from climate-related catastrophes. This is particularly the case for resource-constrained countries, such as Bangladesh. Climate change adaptation (CCA) is one of the strategies to deal with climate-related disasters. Although Bangladesh has success stories in dealing with climate-related disasters, it faces several challenges, including better governance of funds. These challenges surrounding CCA can be analysed from the perspective of political economy (PE), which concerns the distribution of resources and how influential stakeholders decide economic choices. Previous research exploring the challenges in CCA-related funding distribution with a political economy analysis is limited. Therefore, this study investigates CCA challenges from a political economy perspective and explores political economy factors that expedite or hinder effective CCA in Bangladesh. Using semi-structured in-depth interviews (IDIs), official documents and a literature review, a qualitative case study is conducted to explore CCA’s current processes and practices in Bangladesh, particularly the distribution of public spending on projects implemented by the Bangladesh Climate Change Trust Fund (BCCTF). This study reveals the interests and incentives of dominant decision-makers and formal and informal institutions, and the values and ideas influencing stakeholders’ impact on public spending of CCA in Bangladesh. This chapter demonstrates how political economy determinants could function as barriers to and opportunities for CCA-related fund distribution on the ground and the selection of project locations and beneficiaries.