This chapter introduces the subject of cognition and the cognitive sciences. It briefly outlines the history of the cognitive sciences and key discussions, from classic computationalism to more contemporary approaches that see cognition as grounded, embodied, embedded, extended, and enacted to various degrees. It then outlines a proposal for three universal “cognitive master effects” as inter-related components of video game play where curiosity, suspense, and surprise results from a sensori-motor loop between player and game. Finally, the chapter gives an overview of more specific cognitive approaches to video games, drawing most of the examples from work originating in cognitive film theory.