This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book explains the importance of diagnosing chronic stress, the importance of self-esteem and explains the methodology and tools that can be used to enhance resilience and positive well-being. It identifies and presents the “who´s who” in the field and shows the multidisciplinary nature of stress in general and occupational stress in particular, analysing its determining and regulating factors, their symptoms and their results. The book focuses on understanding stress from an individual worker angle. It explains the concept of personality, self-esteem and other social/demographic individual factors that operate in the theatre of stress and health. The book discusses life stress, generic coping and distinguishes the manifestations in two levels of consequences: individual and organizational.