In this concluding chapter, we draw on salient themes in the book to propose new directions for future TBLT research. First, the authors throughout the volume encourage investigations into the dynamic nature of affect, which is an emerging area in learner psychology but an under-researched one in TBLT. We argue that this area is necessary if researchers are to understand how the role of the learner in task-based learning evolves over time. Second, we recommend future researchers triangulate objective measures (discourse, non-verbal behavior, psychophysiological) and subjective measures of affect (self-report data) to understand the role of the learner in TBLT more comprehensively. The use of multiple measurement methods is needed as each provides complementary information on the learner. Finally, the authors underscore the need for future TBLT research to remain grounded in providing practical, evidence-based advice for designing and implementing tasks.