This introductory chapter provides a literature review on consumer ethnocentrism and country-of-origin effect with an emphasis on the food market. Both consumer ethnocentrism and country-or-origin effects have received considerable interest in the international marketing literature. This literature review is organised in chronological order of publication under three sub-headings. The first one concerns consumer ethnocentrism, the second one describes the country-of-origin effect, and the third one focuses on these issues on the food market. Moreover, research aims and hypotheses are formulated here. This book aims to determine how appeals to the domestic or foreign country of origin provided through claims, symbols, labels, and quality signs can affect consumer attitudes and food purchase intentions as well as to contextualise the consumer behaviour issues in the broader picture of the entire system of food production and distribution.