The increasing prevalence of new media and digital methodologies over the last few decades in medieval and early modern scholarship underpins the relationship between what is old and what is new, blurring the boundaries between them. The digital humanities is a relatively new field in academia, which, upon the advent of its inauguration as a permanent office in the National Endowment for the Humanities in 2008, has been an expansive force in new media literacies. Early media studies in Germany formed much of the foundations of the discourse surrounding traditional forms of media. Media ensembles, social historical study, and the interactions and connectivity of differing media were principally examined by German scholars and were largely restricted to that of visual media like newspapers. Media archaeologists including Siegfried Zielinksi and Jussi Parikka challenge the notion of the historical framework surrounding the geology of media, progression, and technological determinism.