ABSTRACT

Negative security can be understood as ‘security from' (a threat) and positive security as ‘security to' or enabling. Negative security is thus often more easily associated with ‘traditional' security, rooted in assumptions about a universally defined state and security issues, addressed by a universally agreed-upon tool of security (practice) – the military. Roe builds on the work by pushing the criteria that make positive security ‘positive'. Roe claims that positive security has application beyond just individual needs and should also be applied to the state. Positive security attempts to make these relations clear and visible, particularly in relation to negative security, which has dominated and ‘hidden' other actors. It challenges the notion that discussions about actors in security are only about ‘referents', rendering passive the role of actors other than the state. Indeed, positive security reflects a relationship between the self and the other, which influences the trajectory of the unfolding security dynamic.