ABSTRACT

This chapter argues in favour of security defined from the ‘bottom-up'. It means taking a departure point in the security practices of people and their communities, which can dig deeper into regions but also transcend North/South divisions, by identifying security articulated from the position of those who are most insecure – in other words, those on the margins. ‘Human security' was popularised in the 1994 United Nations human development report, expanding the notion of security to include dimensions of food, health, community, environmental, economic, and personal and political security, with the intention to, in part, address some of the glaring weaknesses of security policy, and shortly thereafter, theory. A critical move contributing to the shift in feminist and gender security scholarship is the incorporation of the concept and practice of ‘intersectionality' which recognises that universalising, homogeneous methods and practices were often both inaccurate and harmful.