Observing that India is experiencing an accelerated growth in the number of small towns below 100,000 which host half of the urban population, Chapter 3 invites to question the classical paradigms linking urbanisation and development. To consider entirely and with their specificities the urban changes in India, the author pushes forward the notion of subaltern urbanisation. Doing so, he demonstrates that the transition is far from being limited to large metropolis. The polarisation of growth by large urban regions is not occurring and the urban transition remains quite diffuse. Driven notably by the morphing of places when villages becoming towns. Then, a typology encompassing the different forms and drivers of small towns is exposed. Based on these observations, the author suggests that this dense network of small towns constitutes a unique opportunity for India to support a more inclusive development pass that embraces its entire territory and serves all its inhabitants. It represents an alternative to the accumulation of negative externalities linked to fast-growing large metropolis and exacerbated by the climatic changes and growing inequalities.