In this introduction, we start with an overview of Taiwan's history, and then move on to a discussion of the principles of democratic governance. As far as governance in Taiwan is concerned, it is important to note that Taiwan inherited a strong bureaucratic tradition which can be traced back to ancient China and has facilitated the making and implementation of public policies on the island. We also examine the division of the Taiwanese society, which may potentially affect the types of policies, both domestic and international, that would be adopted. Here, we also summarize the arguments and findings of the chapters in this volume. Taken together, this book provides a generally positive, albeit not perfect, assessment of democratic governance in Taiwan. In addition to the establishment of a viable democracy, Taiwan has been able to make significant progress in a variety of policy domains (e.g., economic development, social safety net, and political and social stability) notwithstanding the populist tendency in policy-making and the inability to formulate a coherent policy toward China.