The aim of this chapter is to present the salient features of the relationship between Latin America's development models and its fiscal structures since independence, with particular focus on taxation. We highlight the role of international insertion based on the export of natural resources, the concentration of ownership of these resources and of commercial and financial channels, in addition to the weakness of the national states. This balance of forces limited the transition towards a modern taxation system while maintaining a diminished state fiscal capacity. The highly cyclical and volatile nature of Latin American economies generated recurrent fiscal deficits and external debt.