In China, artificial intelligence (AI) features prominently in the national development strategy. However, there is a significant gap between the technological success of China’s AI revolution and citizens’ well-being, especially in relation to aspects of governance such as healthcare and education where AI applications have been relatively scarce. In order to address this issue, all levels of government are now following the direction set by the Chinese Communist Party in the attempt to integrate AI tech into people’s daily life, and this is particularly evident in the healthcare sector. Since the COVID-19 pandemic, Chinese medical institutions and public health surveillance systems have utilized AI technology extensively in epidemiological investigations, medical diagnosis and treatment, and infection prevention, thereby narrowing the gap between China’s AI vision and its actual implementation in healthcare. The chapter analyses two urban software agents employed in China, specifically during the COVID-19 public health crisis. Subsequently, the chapter provides an overview of urban software agents designed to practice medicine (i.e., AI doctors) and discusses their use in urban China. Overall, the chapter offers a comparison between public and individual healthcare and sheds light on how AI is infiltrating these practices, particularly in cities.