This chapter addresses the figure of Juan González de Mendoza from his double perspective as a religious man – a professed friar of the Order of Saint Augustine – and a subject and servant of the Catholic Monarchy. In Mendoza came together the experiences of the Spanish religious and lay people in the China Sea, the aspirations of those same men regarding Ming China – especially after the union of the crowns of Spain and Portugal in 1580 – and the personal journey of a man who, crossing the Atlantic Ocean seven times, established his residence in places as diverse as Mexico, Italy, Spain, and, finally, New Granada. The second part of the chapter deals with the dimension of González de Mendoza as political writer (arbitrista) and builder of the Empire, in the ideological and missionary plane. In the first place, the writings that the Augustinian religious addressed to the royal authorities dealing with various problems are analyzed in the first place. Based on this study, the author's position is identified in various political and economic debates on Iberian globalization in the reigns of Philip II and Philip III of Spain.