The first part of this chapter deals with the intellectual controversy carried out by Juan González de Mendoza and the constable of Castilla, Juan Fernández de Velasco, embodied in two invective texts of the 1580s. These valuable sources are essential for the analysis of the historiographical vision of González de Mendoza. The chapter then focuses its attention on the publishing itinerary that Mendoza's book followed throughout Europe. The second half of the chapter covers the Historia's reception in the Castilian culture of his time to, then, study the impact on the European Republic of Letters, an issue that this research approaches as a starting point for future studies of the dialogue established between European writers and the Iberian image of China.