This chapter reviews the primary natural constraints, and environmental protection factors, that might bear on the development of the vast expanses of the Soviet Far East. The natural constraints to the development of the Soviet Far East include a variety of climatic factors, as well as considerations involving soils, permafrost, seismicity, volcanism and other physical factors. The southernmost portion of the Soviet Far East, principally Primorskiy Kray and the immediate offshore waters, is one of the most critical areas in the Soviet Union for endangered species. In addition to endangered species and preserved areas, a number of other conservation considerations weigh on economic development in the Soviet Far East. At first glance, it would seem that there exist a number of natural constraints to the economic development of the Soviet Far Eas.