For Italy, the 1990s may be considered an important ‘season of reform’ in the field of social and labour policy. Between 1992 and 1998 there were numerous innovations in both policy sectors. As regards social insurance, the reforms introduced by Prime Ministers Giuliano Amato and Lamberto Dini have substantially altered the mechanism for calculating pension benefits. These reforms have moreover redesigned the system of seniority pensions (pensioni di anzianità) and the relation between the various occupation-based regimes. As regards the labour market, the agreements made by the Amato and Ciampi governments have given rise to radical innovations in the area of industrial relations and incomes policy, in job placement and in policies to promote new employment.