Chapter 4 of Agenda 21 sets out the need to promote patterns of consumption and production that reduce environmental stress and meet the basic needs of humanity. It also draws attention to the need to develop both a better understanding of the role of consumption and the means by which more sustainable consumption patterns can be achieved. Broadly, it identifies two areas for action:

improving the efficiency of production and developing and deploying cleaner technologies;

developing new concepts of prosperity and reinforcing the values that would foster more sustainable production and consumption.