Karl Marx expected that capitalist exploitation of industrial workers would lead them to oppose the culture of capitalism. What Marx could not anticipate, however, was that the antibourgeois intellectuals of his day were the first representatives of what has become in past a mass intelligentsia, a group possessing many of the cultural and political characteristics of a class in Marx's sense. Most of the occupations in which the intelligentsia work are located outside the capitalist sector of the economy, either as free professions or in nonprofit educational institutions or other public bureaucracies. It was the emergence of the southern civil rights movement which, more than any other single event, led the young intelligentsia in the early sixties to see the relevance of political opposition and social change to their own problems. The revolution in advanced capitalist society was not a single insurrection. It was not a civil war of pitched battles fought by opposing armies.