Historical archaeology was birthed in the mid-twentieth century by well-established parents and contentious midwives. An important overview of the field investigates the success with which material elements and texts of historical archaeology actually help to elucidate colonialism, power and inequality, and belief systems as processes over time. Historical Archaeology in South Africa is an account of the context and identity of the material residues of the Company at the Cape. Historical and archaeological sources are enhanced by powerful fiction that evokes the past at the Cape. A brief review of the development of historical archaeology at the Cape will help to contextualize the present work. Archaeological evidence of the great trading company is found both at home and abroad, in VOC headquarters and outposts, as well as in shipwrecks marking the trade routes that linked the Netherlands and their vast Eastern empire. The chapter also presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in this book.