This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book demonstrates the difficulties that lead to the adoption of industrial policies. It shows how the developing countries have been catching up in the various sectors of industrial production, as well as converging toward the advanced industrial countries in the structure of their production and trade. The book provides how trade among the industrialized countries has become ever more intense. It also shows how Canadian interest in industrial policy has long been intense. The Canadians have been fairly free of American inhibitions about the subject. Textiles and clothing firms in the industrial countries have been weakened by the pressure from newer producers to the point where protection has become general and almost all governments have had to provide aid for adjustment. The book focuses on industrial policies in Japan, North America, and Western Europe.