ABSTRACT

Karl Polanyi's metaphor of a "double movement" references a long-term contestation between the forces of laissez-faire capitalism and multiple social movements. This chapter examines the concepts of the "double movement" and the "triple movement". It compares and contrasts the ontological reading of fictitious commoditization with its structural interpretation. The chapter examines farmworkers' struggle for justice to explain how this movement is brokering the market for human labor. It discusses two cases of food-related social movements: a farmworker justice movement in the United States and the state's seed sovereignty drive in India. It also presents some work on the seed sovereignty movement in India in order to explain how the state-led drive for developing and commercializing transgenic varieties may broker the market for nature and associated knowledge. The chapter discusses whether the future will be an apolitical permanently embedded economy or a "movement society" existing in a state of dynamic equilibrium between three movements of marketization, social protection, and emancipation.