This chapter thoroughly analyses the various roles ‘third parties’ play in intra-state armed conflicts. A central point brought home is that conflicts often draw third parties into conflicts in ways to make them de facto parties to the conflict. Different dynamics unfold for different kinds of third parties and various intricacies are involved as they intervene in conflicts. In quite a few cases, third parties have made matters worse and generally their track record is not impressive in spite of all their good intentions. A sober attitude is therefore highly warranted. To ameliorate this sad but true condition, a significant recommendation may be to either seek to acquire sufficient understanding of the country, the protagonists and the culture – or refrain from intervening if the risks for prolonging and worsening the conflict seem high. Caution is warranted considering intervention by third parties.