The Collaboration Problem is the problem of accounting for how a bundle of ultimate physical constituents (UPCs) can coordinate their causal efforts, so as to manifest their collective consciousness-generating power. The Threshold Problem is the problem of describing the types and degrees of complexity that a system has to exhibit in order for its constituent UPCs to jointly manifest their consciousness-generating power. After several decades of active, scientific research on the biological correlates of consciousness, broad consensus exists only with respect to a few general claims. Hence the ontological emergentist about phenomenal states must be an emergent dualist rather than an emergent materialist. Many empirical theories of consciousness, especially of the latecomer variety, start from the idea that consciousness plays the role of integrating otherwise functionally separated cognitive processing in the brain. Consciousness sure seems to come in a much more primitive form than the raw feel of perceptual sensation, emotion, bodily pain and pleasure, and so forth.