This chapter examines the relationship between right-wing populism and the construction of superfluous populations. Focusing on the anti-pluralistic dimension of right-wing populism, and its footing in identity politics, it is argued that one of the key characteristics of right-wing populism is the construction of two strikingly different ‘superfluous peoples’: one that has been framed as forgotten and superfluous but is now framed as a worthy candidate for populist rescue and resurrection, and another that is framed as superfluous, and thus out of place and unworthy. Drawing on the work of Hannah Arendt, among others, the concept is elaborated and theorised as a necessary, albeit not sufficient, element of right-wing populism.