This chapter has two aims: firstly, to offer a brief narrative of events in southern Pannonia in the decades before and after 812 and to provide as coherent a picture as possible of its political history then. The Frankish thrust into the central Danube region was a natural consequence of their expansion into areas to the east of the Rhine and in northern Italy. The final blows to Avar rule in the region between the rivers Sava, Drava and Danube, and consequently in the whole of Pannonia, were dealt by two expeditions, the first in the autumn of 795 and the second in the summer of 796. The principality of Lower Pannonia seems to have encompassed the entire region between the Drava, Sava and Danube, stretching from the river Sutla and the Gorjanci-Žumberak Mountains in the West to the mouth of the Sava, where it discharges into the Danube in the East.