This chapter provides an overview of evidence on the effect of early amplification or cochlear implantation and other factors on language development of children who have permanent childhood hearing loss (PCHL) with or without comorbidities. It examines the language growth observed in the preschool years; and discusses the implications for language intervention for children with hearing loss. Universal newborn hearing screening has been widely implemented since 2000 to detect congenital hearing loss soon after birth, so that treatment can begin in infancy before language delays set in. The current literature suggests that language growth observed in children with PCHL appears to be more stable than that reported for children with typical hearing. The prospective nature of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment study provides an opportunity for examination of language change across time for children with PCHL. Language delay in children with PCHL is abatable, or in some cases completely preventable.