In contrast to prolonged static stretching, manual massage, foam rollers, and roller massagers can improve joint range of motion (ROM – flexibility) without subsequent performance deficits. Mechanisms underlying these ROM changes may be ascribed to decreased viscoelasticity, decreases in sympathetic activity and motoneuron excitability, and increased stretch (pain) tolerance. It is recommended to perform multiple sets of 30–60 seconds of rolling, which can be performed below the maximum pain tolerance (50–90% of maximum pain tolerance). Rolling may be combined with static stretching to further enhance ROM, as well as being applied at 10 minutes after the warm-up to maintain the increased flexibility achieved with the warm-up. Local muscle vibration can also increase ROM by increasing blood flow to the area, and decreasing viscoelasticity and reflex-induced neural inhibition, which may improve muscle relaxation.