Field margins and hedgerows have the potential to provide semi-natural habitat for feeding, shelter and breeding of a wide range of fauna, many of which are beneficial, either as crop pollinators or pest predators. Given their potential to support biodiversity and enhance crop yields, hedgerows and field margins are often the target of agri-environment schemes intended to protect these functions in farmland. However, there are growing concerns about the possible contamination of marginal vegetation with pesticides used in the adjacent crops, leading to exposure of non-target organisms to potentially harmful agrochemicals. This chapter reviews research into pesticide transfer to off-crop areas and summarises our understanding of how pesticide exposure affects the flora and fauna of field margins and hedgerows in agricultural landscapes. Specific conservation goals, regulatory risk assessment and mitigation measures directed towards the protection of these habitats from the potential impact of pesticide use are also addressed.