This chapter draws on data from a study of the US military advising mission to report findings about how advisors define success. It contributes to postmodern military theory through a discussion of postmodern military culture. It defines the military advising mission, forwards a theoretical framework, explains the method, discusses the major findings about defining advisory success, explicates implications, and concludes with ideas for future research. The chapter defines culture as a contested toolkit filled with orientations, tools, schemas, frames, codes, narratives, habits, styles, language, symbols, values, beliefs, and assumptions that provide a group, organization, or society with shared meaning, a collective identity, and strategies of action. It defines cross-cultural competence as the knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral repertoire and skill sets that military members require to accomplish all given tasks and missions in situations marked by substantial cultural diversity. The chapter summarizes the project's major findings and sets the stage for a main concentration on defining military advising success.