The search for urban revitalization programs that work quite naturally leads to an examination of non-profit or not-for-profit institutions. Three examples of non-profit institutions rising to the challenge are the Renaissance program in Columbus, Ohio, sponsored by the Battelle Memorial Institute; the Yale University program in New Haven, Connecticut; and Washington University Medical Center's role in St. Louis. The Battette Memorial Institute (BMI) is an internationally known scientific research foundation. It was founded in Columbus in the 1920s through a bequest of Gordon Battelle, a local industrialist. The patterns shown in Columbus, New Haven, and St. Louis indicate the four major parties to a successful revitalization project as the major non-profit organization, the city government, private developers, and residents. The most frequent criticism of urban renewal and revitalization programs has been that they do not benefit the low- and moderate-income people who lived in the neighborhood before the redevelopment program began.