DOI link for Practical Representation
Practical Representation book
This chapter argues that there is a central idea common to the various senses of the term "representation." The distinction between representation and substitution intuitively appears to be of the greatest importance for a sound theory of democracy: It suggests alternative ways of regarding expertness in government, elections, and the like. Before the force of the distinction can be fully estimated, however, something needs to be said about the relation between representation of interests, and representation of opinion and will. Moreover, the general analysis of practical representation needs to be supplemented by an analysis of its special forms, including delineation of the conditions in which a special form is particularly appropriate and defensible. A general analysis of practical representation can be expected to reveal only the most general normative guidelines governing its special forms. However, it should be positively helpful not only in clarifying some fundamental issues but also in locating alternative special forms.