This chapter deals with the elaboration of the theoretical basis for the sociological theory of representation. In the theory of representation, the relation between electors and their representatives is the most fundamental problem. There are two classical concepts regarding the relation between the electors and their representatives: the concept of a "free mandate" and the opposite one of an "imperative mandate". The concept of the free mandate, however, is no more realistic. The whole theory of representation built upon either of these principles is not adequate to the political process of modern democracies. The character of the political process leads to the conclusion that representation has to be interpreted in terms of a process rather than in terms of a status. In the political process of the modern state, the relation between electors and their individual representative—the deputy—is of minor importance.