This chapter argues that rational choice theory, which has been largely developed by economists as a characterization of the decision processes that prompt economic behaviour, and needs to be supplemented by a "dispositional," theory. It examines the connections between conscience and rational choice, relying upon the notion of "bounded rationality," Davidson's conception of akratic behavior, and Tyler's recent study of the nature of normative commitment to obey the law. "Dispositional" theories imply that whether or not an individual commits a crime on a given occasion is largely determined by his personal characteristics or attributes — they seek to explain criminality rather than criminal acts. Psychologists have been impressed by the immunity to temptation that characterizes the ordinary, well-socialized person, and have consequently concentrated their attention upon those circumstances in which socialization, in this sense, fails. It is clear that inadequate parenting and the conflicting influences of delinquent subcultures are implicated in failures of socialization.