The Carnegie document, surveying American television, concluded that society has communication needs which could not be met by an advertising-based system. A key element in the Carnegie manifesto was its financial recommendation. To assure the independence of the system, it was to have an automatic source of revenue such as a dedicated tax on electronic equipment. The reasons for the Carnegie stipulation were clear. To fulfill its purpose, the system had to be independent not only of sponsor domination but also of pressures involved in constant confrontations with congressional committees over appropriations and policies. Whatever attitudes and fears were involved, the financial status inflicted on public television has done much to sabotage the original plan. When the role of commercialized television is questioned or criticized, its defenders often condemn the criticism as a call for "government control". Public television has won a place on the fringe of people society.