This chapter begins by presenting the available data on the number of think tanks in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU), defined throughout the chapter to exclude the three Baltic Republics, and variations in the economic and political conditions prevailing in these countries. The FSU is one of the newest frontiers for the creation of private public policy research institutes or think tanks. The chapter is devoted to think tanks in the two countries, with particular emphasis on their activities in the policy arena. Armenia and Russia are ranked in the upper one-third of FSU countries in terms of the liberalization of both their economies and democracy reforms. The principal mission of think tanks is to improve the quality of policy making in their respective countries. The record was absolutely clear: private public policy research organizations are unquestionably engaged in policy development, working with both the executive and the legislature.