Think tanks in Asia exhibit a different pattern of development than in western Europe and North America. These think tanks tend to be state centered rather than societally centered and lack the independence associated with Western bodies. The think tank development in Southeast Asian countries is very much determined by national political cultures. A country like Papua New Guinea has more in common with other developing countries in the Asia Pacific region rather than Australia and New Zealand, where the dynamics of think tank development are markedly different from those of Southeast Asia. A strong point of difference between Southeast Asian think tanks and Australian and New Zealand think tanks is that the former are more influential and have greater input into the policy processes of their home states. The club-like tendencies of most of the mainstream think tanks encouraged exclusiveness, insularity, and elitism, and prevented generational renewal.