The states of Francophone west African countries share the same French colonial heritage and are members of the Union Economique et Monetaire de l' Afrique de l'Ouest. Centre de Recherche en Economie Appliquee has two thematic laboratories, one for business management and the other for economic analysis. Most African governments in Francophone Africa are members of an academic council, Conseil Africain et Malgache pour l'Enseignement Supérieur, whose role is to screen candidates for promotion through the ranks of lecturers in law, economics, and business management. The French academic legacy has created a strong emphasis on teaching in African Francophone universities, with research taking a lesser role. Francophone universities are highly hierarchical with little tolerance for scientific dissent on the part of junior staff. The staff lower ranked than elsewhere, it also has a lower salary scale; Burkina Faso has among the lowest per capita incomes in the world.