Earthquakes are a form of sudden and rapid shaking of the ground that are caused by shifts in the layers of rocks beneath the surface of the earth that can happen anywhere. They are one of the most dangerous and destructive among the natural calamities. During the aftermath of an earthquake, thousands are often found dead, with many others injured and homeless. Hospitals are frequently destroyed, so it becomes difficult for the victims to get assistance; fires often break out; and there may be cut-offs in water, gas, and electricity services. In 1997, Seattle officials took its benefit and utilized it for school retrofit project and hazard mapping. This brought the public and the private sectors together, which has resulted in national awards. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization has been working in the field of disaster management since 1960.