The aim of the final chapter is to provide a general overview of party system change in Europe in the twenty-first century. The conclusions present not only the comparative findings drawn from the case studies included in the volume, but also a broader analysis of the core properties of party systems, namely fragmentation, volatility and polarization. The chapter also examines the electoral performance of traditional party families and the rise (and success) of new parties. The final section discusses some implications of party system change for the functioning of representative democracies and it raises questions to be developed in future research.