Brazil’s National Program of Public Security with Citizenship (PRONASCI)— was launched in August 2007 during President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva’s second term, by the then Minister of Justice of Brazil, Tarso Genro. It had a planned budget of US$3 billion, and its objective was to develop a range of new preventative and deterrent strategies for policing, including the expansion of eff ective citizenship to the lower reaches of society, enhancing the professional status of public security employees, and focusing new resources on areas with high levels of crime and low social cohesion.