This chapter discusses genetic translation studies (GTS), in which the methodology of genetic criticism in literary studies is used to analyze the genesis of translated texts, that is, the process of a translation’s coming into being, from the translator’s preparatory work (appreciation of the source text, research, and terminological study) to the drafting and redrafting of the translation and interactions with collaborators (co-translators, authors, peers, correspondents, translation revisors, editors). GTS therefore shines light upon the strategies and creativity of translators, upon how translators negotiate their individual freedoms and choices with the inherent limits of translating, and how they react to professional or socio-cultural constraints, as well as target culture dynamics. This chapter explores the challenges for students and scholars who engage in this research, the issues and assumptions that underlie their work, as well as its potential to generate both new research questions and insights into the art of translation.