This chapter introduces critical discourse analysis (CDA) as a methodological approach to explore the nexus between translation as a social phenomenon and broader cultural and political structures. It sets out to provide a philosophical investigation into the nature of human knowledge and language representations. The chapter then proposes criteria of assessment based on social theory and its connections to language analysis in order to answer questions related to modernity, justice, morality, and forms of knowledge. I also provide a comprehensive literature review on CDA and its role as a valid methodology for translation research. After showing the contribution of CDA to translation studies, I provide some case studies from different genres to raise questions on power inequalities and on the different modes of social formations in other societies. The chapter concludes that studying translations in their own right allows us to see a different hegemonic form of knowledge, be it related to feminism, anti-racism, or secularism. It suggests that, guided by a CDA method of research, we can further investigate how social structures shape the activities of their agents and how identities are represented. Thus the chapter asserts that translation can be considered a valuable supplement to social research and critique.