Data represent the foundation of the research endeavor and scholarly inquiry. In translation and interpreting studies (TIS), data are derived from a variety of sources, including text as data, survey responses, ethnographies, experiments, and observational research. Transdisciplinary approaches to TIS research continue to expand the types and sources of available data as well as the increased number of data collection techniques now available to scholars in the field. This chapter takes a broad view of data in describing collection methods, quantitative and qualitative data, emerging sources of data for TIS, and some of the challenges of data handling in order to investigate the philosophy of data as the raw material that is collected, generated, curated, and analyzed during the research process. To do so, we adopt a tripartite structure by keeping in mind a definition of data that recognizes that data aim to capture scientific truth, that agents instigate the collection, processing, storage, and dissemination of data, and that every dataset is incomplete.