Technology has become increasingly entrenched in the language professions in recent decades, and this chapter opens with a brief introduction to computer-assisted translation (CAT) and computer-assisted interpreting (CAI) tools. As the use of CAT and CAI tools has risen steadily, so has the interest in investigating the various ways in which these tools impact the products, processes, participants, and contexts associated with translation and interpreting. Using these four research orientations as a structuring mechanism, this chapter explores a variety of methods that can be used to carry out empirical research involving CAT or CAI tools and presents a selection of research projects to illustrate these different methods. Finally, the chapter ends with a discussion of some critical issues and topics, including triangulation of research methods, the challenges that resistance to tool use can pose for research on CAT/CAI tools, difficulties gaining access to study tool use in situ, and related areas such as research on the teaching of CAT/CAI technologies.